Darling-Hammond, L. (2013) Recruiting and retaining teachers: what matters most and what can government do. Retrieved from http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Darling-Hammond.pdf.

2 Simon, N.S. & Johnson, S.M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/Teacher%20Turnover%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.

3 Simon, N.S. & Johnson, S.M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/Teacher%20Turnover%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.

4 Bridgeland, J., Bruce, M., & Hariharan A. (2013). The missing piece: A national teacher survey on how social and emotional learning can empower children and transform schools. Retrieved from Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning website:  http://static1.squarespace.com/static/513f79f9e4b05ce7b70e9673/t/526a2589e4b01768fee91a6a/1382688137983/the-missing-piece.pdf.

5 Stafford-Brizard, K.B. (2015). Building blocks for learning: A framework for comprehensive student development. Retrieved from Turnaround for Children website:  http://turnaroundusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Turnaround-for-Children-%E2%80%93-Building-Blocks-for-Learning.pdf.

6 Stafford-Brizard, K.B. (2015). Building blocks for learning: A framework for comprehensive student development. Retrieved from Turnaround for Children website:  http://turnaroundusa.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Turnaround-for-Children-%E2%80%93-Building-Blocks-for-Learning.pdf.

7 Nagaoka, J., Farrington, C.A., Ehrlich, S.B., & Heath, R.D. (2015). Foundations for young adult success: A developmental framework. Retrieved from The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research website: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Wallace%20Report.pdf.

8 Kneebone, E. (2014, July 31). The growth and spread of concentrated poverty, 2000 to 2008-2012. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/concentrated-poverty#/M10420.

9 Kneebone, E. (2014, July 31). The growth and spread of concentrated poverty, 2000 to 2008-2012. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/concentrated-poverty#/M10420.

0 Poverty and Race Research Action Council. (2015). Annotated bibliography: The impact of school-based poverty concentration on academic achievement & student outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.prrac.org/pdf/annotated_bibliography_on_school_poverty_concentration.pdf.

1 Simon, N.S. & Johnson, S.M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/Teacher%20Turnover%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.

12 Ingersoll, R. & Perda, D. (2012). How high is teacher turnover and is it a problem? Philadelphia: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, University of Pennsylvania.

13 Rich, M. (2015, Aug. 9). Teacher shortages spur a nationwide hiring scramble (credentials optional). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/10/us/teacher-shortages-spur-a-nationwide-hiring-scramble-credentials-optional.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=first-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=1.

14 Brown, E. (2015, Dec. 4). High-poverty schools often staffed by rotating cast of substitutes. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/how-can-students-learn-without-teachers-high-poverty-schools-often-staffed-by-rotating-cast-of-substitutes/2015/12/04/be41579a-92c6-11e5-b5e4-279b4501e8a6_story.html.

15 Rich, M. (2015, Aug. 9). Teacher shortages spur a nationwide hiring scramble (credentials optional). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/10/us/teacher-shortages-spur-a-nationwide-hiring-scramble-credentials-optional.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=first-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=1.

16 California Teachers Association. (1999-2016). Teacher shortage. Retrieved January 19, 2016, from http://www.cta.org/en/Issues-and-Action/Retirement/Teacher-Shortage.aspx.

17 Darling-Hammond, L. (2013) Recruiting and retaining teachers: what matters most and what can government do. Retrieved from http://www.help.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Darling-Hammond.pdf.

18 Simon, N.S. & Johnson, S.M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/Teacher%20Turnover%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.

19 Darling-Hammond, L., Furger, R., Shields, P., & and Sutcher, L. (2016). Addressing California’s emerging teacher shortage: An analysis of sources and solutions. Retrieved from Learning Policy Institute website: http://learningpolicyinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/LPI-4pp-Brief_AddressingShortages.pdf.

20 TNTP. (2012). The irreplaceables: Understanding the real retention crisis in America’s urban schools. Retrieved from http://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP_zIrreplaceables_2012.pdf.

21 Alliance for Excellent Education. (2014). On the path to equity: Improving the effectiveness of beginning teachers. Retrieved from http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PathToEquity.pdf.

22 Alliance for Excellent Education. (2014). On the path to equity: Improving the effectiveness of beginning teachers. Retrieved from http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/PathToEquity.pdf.

23 Simon, N.S. & Johnson, S.M. (2013). Teacher turnover in high-poverty schools: What we know and can do. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/Teacher%20Turnover%20in%20High-Poverty%20Schools.pdf.

24 Brown, E. (2015, Dec. 4). High-poverty schools often staffed by rotating cast of substitutes. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/how-can-students-learn-without-teachers-high-poverty-schools-often-staffed-by-rotating-cast-of-substitutes/2015/12/04/be41579a-92c6-11e5-b5e4-279b4501e8a6_story.html.

25 Graham, E. (2014, May 16). NEA report: Lack of teacher diversity jeopardizes student achievement. neaToday. Retrieved January 19, 2016, from http://neatoday.org/2014/05/16/nea-report-lack-of-teacher-diversity-jeopardizes-student-achievement-2/.

26 Dilworth, M.E. & Coleman, M.J. (2014). Time for a change: Diversity in teaching revisited. Retrieved from National Education Association website:

http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/Time_for_a_Change_Diversity_in_Teaching_Revisited_(web).pdf, p. 1.

27 Simon, N.S., Johnson, S.M., & Reinhorn, S.K. (2015). The challenge of recruiting and hiring teachers of color: Lessons from six high-performing, high-poverty, urban schools. Retrieved from The Project on the Next Generation of Teachers website: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1231814.files/The%20Challenge%20of%20Recruiting%20and%20Hiring%20Teachers%20of%20Color.Diversity.%20July%202015.pdf.

28 Albert Shanker Institute. (2015). The state of teacher diversity in American education. Retrieved from http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/The%20State%20of%20Teacher%20Diversity%20in%20American%20Education.pdf.    

29 Albert Shanker Institute. (2015). The state of teacher diversity in American education. Retrieved from http://www.shankerinstitute.org/sites/shanker/files/The%20State%20of%20Teacher%20Diversity%20in%20American%20Education.pdf.    

30 Whipp, J.L. & Geronime, L. (2015). Experiences that predict early career teacher commitment to and retention in high-poverty urban schools. Urban Education, 1-30. Doi:  10.1177/0042085915574531. Retrieved from http://uex.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/26/0042085915574531.abstract.

31 Education Pioneers. (2016, Feb. 23). New cohort of leaders selected to reimagine recruitment, development and retention of teachers, principals and teams in public education. Retrieved March 4, 2016, from http://www.educationpioneers.org/news-events/news/new-cohort-leaders-selected-reimagine-recruitment-development-and-retention.

32 Layton, Lyndsey. (2015, Nov. 27). To build a better teacher, Harvard launches program aimed at quality. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/to-build-a-better-teacher-harvard-launches-program-aimed-at-quality/2015/11/27/c445ef18-93b9-11e5-b5e4-279b4501e8a6_story.html.

33 Arnett, T. (2016, Jan. 28). ESSA unlocks teacher prep innovation. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/brown-center-chalkboard/posts/2016/01/27-essa-teacher-prep-innovation-arnett?rssid=brown+center+chalkboard.

34 Education Pioneers. (2016, Feb. 23). New cohort of leaders selected to reimagine recruitment, development and retention of teachers, principals and teams in public education. Retrieved March 4, 2016, from http://www.educationpioneers.org/news-events/news/new-cohort-leaders-selected-reimagine-recruitment-development-and-retention.

35 Anderson, J. (2014, Nov. 3). Ryan announces Harvard teachers fellows program. Retrieved March 4, 2016, from http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/14/11/ryan-announces-harvard-teacher-fellows-program.

36 Anderson, L.M., Laguarda, K.G., & Williams. I.J. (2007). The effect of the City Year experience over time: Findings from the longitudinal study of alumni. Retrieved from Policy Study Associates website: http://www.policystudies.com/_policystudies.com/files/City_Year_Longitudinal_Study.pdf.

37 Whipp, J.L. & Geronime, L. (2015). Experiences that predict early career teacher commitment to and retention in high-poverty urban schools. Urban Education, 1-30. Doi:  10.1177/0042085915574531. Retrieved from http://uex.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/26/0042085915574531.abstract.